Toronto Dermatology Centre is one of the premiere places in Canada to manage psoriasis; we launched the Toronto Psoriasis Centre because we see so many patients with psoriasis and have become a centre of excellence for psoriasis. In fact, in 2012, Dr. Benjamin Barankin and Dr. Anatoli Freiman were both recognized as Top Dermatologists in Toronto by RealSelf.com, and have published and presented around the world on the management of psoriasis.
Toronto Psoriasis Centre has outstanding dermatologists that can offer both a comprehensive assessment and diagnosis of your skin, and also discuss all the treatment options including: moisturizer selection, prescription creams and pills, OHIP-covered (no charge) phototherapy, and the newer and powerful biologic agents (e.g. Humira®, Stelara®, Enbrel®, Remicade®).
As well, at our Toronto dermatology clinic, we offer clinical trials - please email firstname.lastname@example.org or call us at 416-633-0001 x4 if you are interested in participating in clinical trials and furthering our understanding of psoriasis.
Psoriasis affects 2-3% of people in North America. Psoriasis is a persistent skin disorder characterized by red, thickened areas with silvery scales, most often on the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back. Some cases of psoriasis are so mild that people don't know they have it. Severe psoriasis may cover large areas of the body. Psoriasis is not contagious and cannot be passed from one person to another, but it is most likely to occur in members of the same family.
What Causes Psoriasis? The cause of psoriasis is unknown. However, recent discoveries point to an abnormality in the functioning of special white cells (T cells) which trigger inflammation and the immune response in the skin. Because of the inflammation, the skin grows too rapidly. Normally, the skin replaces itself in about 30 days, but in psoriasis, the process speeds up and replaces the skin in three to four days, and the signs of psoriasis develop (thickness and scaling).
People often notice new spots 10 to 14 days after the skin is cut, scratched, rubbed, or severely sunburned (Koebner phenomenon). Psoriasis can also be activated by infections, such as strep throat, and by certain medicines (beta blockers, lithium, etc.). Flare-ups sometimes occur in the winter, as a result of dry skin and lack of sunlight. Winters in Canada can be particularly harsh for patients with psoriasis; Toronto Dermatology Centre offers phototherapy all year round, although winter time is certainly the most popular time for this treatment.
Types of Psoriasis Psoriasis comes in many forms. Each differs in severity, duration, location, shape, and pattern of the scales. The most common form of psoriasis is called plaque psoriasis and it begins with little red bumps. Gradually, these bumps become larger, and scales form. While the top scales flake off easily and often, scales below the surface stick together. These small red areas can enlarge.
Scalp, elbows, knees, legs, arms, genitals, nails, palms, and soles are the areas most commonly affected by psoriasis. It will often appear in the same place on both sides of the body.
Scalp psoriasis may be mistaken for dandruff, or both can sometime co-exist.
Nails with psoriasis frequently have tiny pits and often lift (onycholysis). Nails may thicken or crumble, and are difficult to treat. Fungal infections are more common in patients with nail psoriasis. Toronto Dermatology Centre can help you determine whether you have simply psoriasis in your nails or an actual fungal infection.
Inverse psoriasis occurs in the armpits, under the breasts, and in skin folds around the groin, buttocks, and genitals. This form of psoriasis responds very well to specific treatments which are specific to these sensitive areas.
Guttate ("drop like") psoriasis usually affects children and young adults. Typically it begins after a sore throat (e.g. Strep throat) with many small, red, scaly spots appearing on the skin. Guttate psoriasis frequently clears up by itself in a few months.
20-30% of people with psoriasis may have symptoms of arthritis ("psoriatic arthritis") and should consider seeing a rheumatologist.
How is Psoriasis Diagnosed? Dermatologists diagnose psoriasis by taking a thorough history and examining the skin, nails, and scalp. If the diagnosis is in doubt, a skin biopsy may be helpful.
How is Psoriasis Treated? The goal of psoriasis treatment is to reduce inflammation and to control shedding of the skin. Moisturizing creams loosen scales and help control itching. Special diets have not been successful in treating psoriasis, except in isolated cases; increasing fish in the diet and/or taking fish oil capsules may benefit some patients with psoriasis. Toronto Dermatology Centre is cutting edge as far as understanding all the medical treatment options as well as the more natural options for psoriasis. treatment. Scientific studies now also suggest improvement in psoriasis with weight reduction and stopping smoking.
Psoriasis treatment is based on a patient's health, age, lifestyle, and the severity of the psoriasis. We will evaluate your psoriasis on an individual basis and give you the optimal treatment plan for you. Different types of treatments and several visits to your dermatologist may be needed.
Our specialist physicians at Toronto Psoriasis Centre may prescribe medications to apply on the skin containing cortisone compounds, synthetic vitamin D analogues (eg. Dovonex, Silkis), combination products (eg. Dovobet, Xamiol), topical immunomodulatory creams (eg. Protopic, Elidel), and less commonly retinoids (eg. Tazorac) and tar for your psoriasis. These psoriasis treatments may be used in combination with natural sunlight or ultraviolet light. The more severe forms of psoriasis may require oral or injectable medications with or without light treatment.
Sunlight exposure helps the majority of people with psoriasis but it must be used cautiously. Ultraviolet light therapy ("UV therapy" or "phototherapy") may be given in a dermatologist's office or a hospital for your psoriasis. Toronto Psoriasis Centre offers phototherapy which is a service covered under OHIP (no charge).
Types of Treatment Steroids (Cortisone) - Cortisone is a medication that reduces inflammation. Cortisone creams, ointments, and lotions may clear the skin temporarily and control the condition in many patients. Weaker preparations should be used on more sensitive areas of the body such as the genitals and face. Stronger preparations will usually be needed to control lesions on the scalp, elbows, knees, palms, soles, and parts of the torso. Side effects of the stronger cortisone preparations (if misused) include thinning of the skin, dilated blood vessels, bruising, and skin color changes. Stopping these medications suddenly may result in a flare-up of the disease. Occasionally, the psoriasis may become resistant to the steroid preparations. Your dermatologist may inject cortisone in difficult-to-treat spots. Non-steroid anti-inflammatory creams such as Protopic (tacrolimus) and Elidel (pimecrolimus) can be quite helpful in the groin, armpits, and face.
Light Therapy - Sunlight and ultraviolet light slow the rapid growth of skin cells in psoriasis. Toronto Dermatology Centre offers full-body narrow-band phototherapy and hand & foot phototherapy units for its patients. Although ultraviolet light or sunlight can cause skin wrinkling, eye damage, and skin cancer, light treatment ("phototherapy") using narrow-band UVB is safe and effective under a dermatologist's care.
Methotrexate - This is an oral anti-cancer drug that can produce dramatic clearing of psoriasis when other treatments have failed; it is also useful in psoriatic arthritis. Because it can cause side effects, particularly liver disease, regular blood tests are performed and periodic visits to your dermatologist. Other side effects include upset stomach, nausea, and dizziness. Methotrexate should not be used by pregnant women, or by men and women who are trying to conceive a child. Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed if using methotrexate.
Retinoids - Prescription oral vitamin A-related drugs (e.g. Soriatane) may be prescribed alone or in combination with ultraviolet light for severe cases of psoriasis. Side effects include dryness of the skin, lips, and eyes; elevation of fat levels in the blood (cholesterol and triglycerides). Oral retinoids are not commonly used in women of child-bearing age. Occasional blood tests are required and periodic visits with your dermatologist.
Biologic Agents - Adalimumab (Humira), Etanercept (Enbrel), Infliximab (Remicade), and Stelara (Ustekinumab) are very effective agents for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, and are either administered by self-injection (e.g. Humira, Enbrel, Stelara) or intravenously (e.g. Remicade). Some of these agents are administered once or twice a week, while others are administered every 2-3 months. The vast majority of patients find these medications very convenient and the discomfort of the injection/infusion to be quite minimal.
These agents have been safely and effectively used in millions of people now for other inflammatory conditions as well, including: rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and ankylosing spondylitis.
When topical (cream/ointment) therapy is not practical or not effective enough, and the psoriasis too widespread, and/or in the presence of psoriatic arthritis, biologic agents should be strongly considered; they are typically prescribed by a dermatologist rather than by a family physician/general practitioner.
These agents have revolutionized the treatment of moderate-severe plaque psoriasis therapy as these treatments are considered both safe and highly effective; although there are potential side effects to these medications like all medications, with proper counselling and periodic blood tests and periodic visits to the dermatologist, these therapies can be an excellent treatment option for many patients struggling with psoriasis. Toronto Dermatology Centre is dedicated to minimizing the physical and psychosocial impact of psoriasis through a variety of treatment options and counselling.
The main drawback to the psoriasis biologics is their high-cost, and fortunately most third party (e.g. work) insurance will pay for these medications. There are also instances of coverage under ODB/social assistance and for seniors. In cases where a biologic medication is indicated for psoriasis but the cost is not covered for the medication by a drug or government plan, at the Toronto Dermatology Centre we offer clinical research trials in psoriasis which allows many patients to obtain psoriasis medications for free. Speak with one of our Toronto dermatologists to decide the best treatment plan for your psoriasis.
Call 416-633-0001 or email us today to find out the best psoriasis treatment for you. Toronto Dermatology Centre is located in Toronto, Ontario, and serves men and women in North York, Vaughan, Richmond Hill, York, Aurora, Thornhill, Mississauga, Scarborough, Brampton, Etobicoke, Pickering, Peterborough, Guelph, Kitchener, Waterloo, Oakville, Cambridge, Barrie and all of Greater Toronto (GTA).
Call 416-633-0001 or email us today for a dermatology consultation. Toronto Dermatology Centre is located at 4256 Bathurst St., Suite 400 (Bathurst & Sheppard) in Toronto, Ontario, and serves patients in North York, Thornhill, Richmond Hill, Markham, Vaughan, York, Aurora, King City, Mississauga, Oakville, Etobicoke, Scarborough, Brampton, Newmarket, and all of Greater Toronto (GTA).